Meghalaya, a name that literally translates to ‘the abode of clouds’, is an Indian North-Eastern state that’s one of the most beautiful and serene places. Though the state mostly has hilly areas, it also has numerous rivers and diverse soil types. Being the wettest region of India, about 70% of the state is forested.

Meghalaya, with an average annual rainfall of 1,150 cm, receives the highest amount of rainfall in the country. The diverse range of soil types, including red-loamy and laterite, support various agricultural crops like rice, maize, pulses, oilseeds, cotton, jute, and mesta. The state has achieved success in the cultivation of non-traditional crops like tea, cashew nuts, oilseeds, tomato, mushroom, wheat, etc.

  • 10.40%

    GSDP growth rate, YoY(2018-19)

Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Meghalaya. About 83 % of the total population of the state depends on agriculture for their livelihood.

The ethnic communities of Meghalaya follow two major types of agricultural practices such as shifting cultivation or slash and burn agriculture, and terrace or bun cultivation. Shifting cultivation is practiced in and around forests, and terrace cropping is practiced in valleys and foothills, and inside plantation forests. A common irrigation technique employed in the state is the Bench Terrace Irrigation practice where the hill streams are tapped as soon as they emerge from the forests and the water is channeled to accommodate a series of terraces. Bench terracing is an important conservation measure for valleys and hill slopes. In bench terrace agriculture practice under rain-fed conditions, topo-sequence crops such as maize, bean, and potato are planted on upper slopes, and crops requiring more water such as rice and jute are grown on lower slopes. The excess runoff from the upper portion of the slope is nutrient-rich, utilized for the lower hill crops.

The topography and the climatic conditions of Meghalaya favor agriculture, horticulture, and forestry. Meghalaya is endowed with abundant natural resources in terms of flora, fauna, medicinal plants & forests, and the state offers significant avenues for investment.

There are three agro-climatic zones in the state as shown below:

  • Temperate and Sub-Alpine Zone: Upper Shillong, Mawphlong and Mairang
  • Sub-Tropical Hill Zone: Jawai, Nongstonin, Nokrek, Kailash area of west Garo hills, the western part of east Garo hills and Umkeang area
  • Mild Tropical Hill Zone: Southern part of Jawai, adjoining part of Karimganj, Cachar, North Cachar Hills of Assam, the southern part of Nongpol, the eastern part of east Garo hills and west Khasi hills, the lower part of west Garo hills


A major strength of Meghalaya’s food processing industry lies in the following:

  • Spices - Turmeric, Black Pepper, Ginger, Bay Leaves
  • Pulses - Cow Pea, Lentil, Pigeon Pea, Black Gram, Bengal Gram
  • Cereals - Rice, Maize
  • Oilseeds - Soybean, Rapeseed, Mustard, Castor, Sesame, Linseed
  • Commercial crop - Areca Nut, Tapioca, Broomsticks, Bay Leaves, Turmeric, Cotton, Rubber, Tea, Coffee


Food Grains: Key production highlights (2015-16)    

Total production of 3,78,102 Metric tonnes of food grains

  • Rice: 301076 Metric tonnes
  • Maize: 61674 Metric tonnes


Horticulture products: Key production highlights (2015-16)

Total production of 1,014.07 thousand tonnes of horticulture products

  • Fruits: 3,95,877 Metric tonnes
  • Vegetables: 2,61,310 Metric tonnes
  • Flowers: 2.13 thousand tonnes
  • Spices: 97,820 Metric tonnes

Meghalaya produced 84,000 MT of Milk, 43,301MT of Khasi Mandarin orange, and 26,802 MT of Areca Nut in the year 2015-16.

Meghalaya has a long history of growing horticultural crops. Potato, Pineapple, orange, turmeric, ginger, and areca nut are grown traditionally and besides these crops, a variety of new crops like tea, cashew, and strawberry have been introduced. Most of the land used for these crops is not suitable for traditional agricultural crops like cereals, pulses, oilseeds, and fibers. With the introduction of the Horticulture Mission for North Eastern & Himalayan States, a lot of area expansion has taken place.

Meghalaya’s turmeric considered one of the best in the world, as it contains 7.5% of curcumin

Production Cluster of the State: -

S. No.





West Garo Hills, East Garo Hils, South Garo Hills, South West Garo Hills



West Garo Hills, North Garo Hills, South Garo Hills



Ri-bhoi, West Garo Hills, West Jaintia Hills, East Garo Hills, South Garo Hills



East Garo Hills, Ri-bhoi, East Khasi Hills, West Garo Hills, North Garo Hills



East Garo Hills, Ri-bhoi, East Khasi Hills, South Garo Hills, West Garo Hills, Ri-bhoi



East Khasi Hills, South West Garo Hills, West Khasi Hills



East Garo Hills, Ri-bhoi, East Khasi Hills, South Garo Hills, West Garo Hills, Ri-bhoi



East Khasi Hills, East Garo Hills, West Khasi Hills



East Garo Hills, East Khasi Hills, West Khasi Hills.



 West Khasi Hills, Ri-bhoi, East Khasi Hills, East Jaintia Hills, West Jaintia Hills.


Black Pepper

West Khasi Hills, East Khasi Hills, Ri-Bhoi, West Garo Hills,  North Garo Hills


Fruits ( Banana, Apple, Oranges)

West Garo Hills, Ri-bhoi, East Garo Hills, East Khasi Hills, West Garo Hills, Ri-bhoi, East Garo Hills, East Khasi Hills



Farmers markets, implemented during the 11th Plan, will be expanded to cover more areas within the State during the 12th Plan, where farmers market will be tried on the hub and spoke model – large central markets and satellite markets in their hinterland. The effective functioning of farmers' markets depends to a large extent on the flow and easy availability of market-related information to enable farmers to take proper and profitable market decisions based on reliable real-time data. A market information system is thus a crucial and urgent intervention that would be made in order to make Farmers Markets viable and vibrant entities leading to the evolution of a much more transparent marketing system.

Meghalaya has the following marketing facilities in the state:

  • Market Yards/Regulated Markets: The state government has set up 2 regulated markets in the state - Mawiong in East Khasi and Garobadha in West Garo Hills district. In addition, there are daily markets in Shillong, Jowai, Tura, Williamnagar, and a few other locations in the state
  • Status of Logistics and Warehousing Facilities in the State: There are 6 warehouses in the State with a storage capacity of 1,400 Thousand MT as per the Central Warehousing Corporation
  • Cold Storages: There are 3 cold storages in the state with a total storage capacity of 3200 MT
  • Scheme for Cold Chain, Value Addition and Preservation Infrastructure for Non – Horticulture Products” is being administered by Commerce and Industries Department, Government of Meghalaya


Cluster approach to strengthening the existing concentration of crops. For each crop post-harvest management and value chain management will be given emphasis so that additional income and employment will be generated in the State itself

Some of the major processing clusters in the state include:

  • Spices & Condiments East & North Garo Hills, West Garo Hills, East Jaintia Hills, East Khasi Hills
  • Milk East & North Garo Hills, Re-Bhoi & East Khasi Hills
  • Cashew nut West Garo Hills, South West Garo Hills Hills
  • Honey processing East Khasi Hills
  • Beverages Re-Bhoi
  • Fruits & Vegetables Ri-Bhoi, East Khasi Hills, West Jaintia Hills, South West Khasi Hills, West Garo Hills, East Garo Hills
  • Bakery products West Garo Hills, East Khasi Hills

Famous Traditional Food of Meghalaya

  • Jadoh- Jadoh is rice and pork-based Khasi delicacy. It is a typical Meghalaya dish, famous for its aromatic taste and minimum use of oil
  • Tungtap – a delicious dry fish paste
  • Jastem – traditional Khasi rice dish which is enjoyed with Daiiong (Black Dal)
  • Meghalaya has a climate that supports agricultural and horticultural activities. The state offers potential for investment in these areas
  • Turmeric produced in the state of Meghalaya is considered to be one of the best in the world as it contains 7.5% of curcumin. The state is focusing on developing water harvesting and distribution infrastructure to increase the level of mechanization in the horticulture sector
  • As of March 2020, the state had an installed hydroelectric power capacity of 401.77 MW, of which state utilities had an installed capacity of 322 MW, while 72.27 MW was contributed by central utilities
  • The State Government is inviting investments in this area through the PPP model. Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are also being invited to develop hydro projects in Meghalaya; this provides immense potential for investment
  • The hydropower potential of 3,000 MW has been identified in the state*. As of March 2020, 322 MW of capacity is operational in Meghalaya
  • Meghalaya is richly endowed with flora, fauna, thick forests, ancient forest groves, large rivers, and grass fields - making it an attractive tourism destination
  • The mining industry is emerging in Meghalaya; most of the coal and stones are being exported to Bangladesh. An extensive bed of limestone occurs in the southern part of the state from Jaintia Hills in the East and Garo Hills in the West


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ajsd asnbdvasjd asnbdjasn dasbvd

kasjd asjbdvbasjkd asbjdvasjkd asb 

Ribhoi West Khasi Hills East Jaintia Hills East Khasi Hills South Garo Hills West Garo Hills East Garo Hills West Jaintia Hills South West Khasi Hills North Garo Hills South West Garo Hills