HVAC systems can broadly be segmented into three categories—heating, ventilation, and cooling. Heating systems are widely used in applications such as space heating, molding, floor and wall heating, and tensile testing. Ventilation systems remove excess humidity, odors, pollutants, and other contaminants from the indoor area. It is the most energy-efficient and cost-effective method to reduce temperature and improve indoor air quality.

The fundamental requirement of any food production unit is to have a properly cool and clean processing room. The HVAC systems are the most critical control points in the overall management of the food processing plants and must be maintained as per the guidelines in order to knock out any airborne pathogens, allergens and other potentially harmful components. The colder temperatures prove to be a hindrance for the growth of bacteria. Hence, having a properly maintained and controlled system is a basic requirement.


  • 50-100 MJ/kg

    Amount of energy needed for food and beverage processing

Overview of the advantages of using air humidification in the Food Processing industry

  • Storage of Raw Fruits and Vegetables: It is well-known that some bacteria are responsible for the degradation of food, and enzymatic processing cause ripening of the fruits and vegetables. The growth of bacteria and the rate of enzymatic processes are reduced at low temperature. This helps in reducing the spoilage and improving the shelf life of the food.
  • The icing of fish: In India, iced fish is still transported by rail and road, and retail stores store it for short periods by this method. Freezing of fish aboard the ship right after catch results in better quality than freezing it after the ship docks. In some ships, it is frozen along with seawater since it takes months before the ships return to dock. Long-term preservation of fish requires cleaning, processing and freezing.
  • Meat and poultry: These items also require refrigeration right after slaughter during processing, packaging. Short-term storage is done at 0 degree C. Long-term storage requires freezing and storage at -25 degree C
  • Beverages: Production of beer, wine and concentrated fruit juices require refrigeration. The taste of many drinks can be improved by serving them cold or by adding ice to them. Brewing and winemaking require fermentation reaction at a controlled temperature, for example, lager-type of beer requires 8 to12o C while wine requires 27- 30o C. Fermentation is an exothermic process; hence heat has to be rejected at a controlled temperature.
  • Processing and distribution of frozen food: The refrigeration systems for frozen food applications are very liberally designed, since the food items are frozen in shortest period of time. The sharp freezing with temperature often below –30o C, is done so that the ice crystals formed during freezing do not get sufficient time to grow and remain small and do not pierce the cell boundaries and damage them. Ready-to-eat frozen foods, packed dinners and bakery items are also frozen by this method and stored at temperatures of –25 to -20 oC for distribution to retail stores during peak demands or off-season demands.


Improper ventilation is a disaster for the food processing plant. It can lead to the flow of odours that impart undesirable flavours to the processed food products. It is advised that there should be a sufficient number of air changes and proper filtration must also take place. It is estimated that as the number of products rises, a minimum of 15-20 air changes per hour can be sufficient. Some cleaner rooms and specific products require more complete air changes per hour to ensure minimal bacteria exposure and longer shelf life.

HVAC system market was valued at USD 181.00 Billion in 2018 and is expected to reach USD 251.60 Billion by 2023, at a CAGR of 6.80?tween 2018 and 2023. Factors that are driving the growth of the market include increasing demand for HVAC systems for reducing energy consumption, extreme weather conditions, government tax credit and rebate programs, and growing demand for HVAC systems to upgrade old systems.


Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) units add to the aesthetic value of residential and commercial places. Companies are heavily investing in R&D to manufacture innovative products such as hybrid HVAC equipment that uses multiple sources of energy for heating and cooling applications. For instance, Trane offers a dual fuel XL16c EarthWise Hybrid heating system, a hybrid heating and cooling system which combines a heat pump and dual-stage furnace contained in a single cabinet.

Technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT), automated control systems, and remote control access are transforming HVAC equipment. Automated control systems detect the surrounding climate and automatically control the temperature and fan speed to offer optimum comfort. Remote control access allows users to operate connected systems through mobile applications with the help of the internet. IoT-enabled HVAC units can be connected to the internet and can provide real-time information about the condition of the systems to users and manufacturers, helping them anticipate defects and reduce maintenance costs.